Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution

by Peter Kropotkin 1902

Chapter 1Mutual Aid Among Animals
Chapter 2Mutual Aid Among Animals (continued)
Chapter 3Mutual Aid Among Savages
Chapter 4Mutual Aid Among the Barbarians
Chapter 5Mutual Aid in the Mediaeval City
Chapter 6Mutual Aid in the Mediaeval City (continued)
Chapter 7Mutual Aid Amongst Ourselves
Chapter 8Mutual Aid Amongst Ourselves (continued)
AppendixI -- Swarms of Butterflies, Dragon-Flies, Etc.
II -- The Ants
III. -- Nesting Associations
IV -- Sociability of Animals
V -- Checks to Over-Multiplication
VI -- Adaptations to Avoid Competition
VII. -- The Origin of the Family
VIII -- Destruction of Private Property on the Grave
IX -- The Undivided Family
X -- The Origin of the Guilds.
XI -- The Market and the Mediaeval City
XII -- Mutual-Aid Arrangements in the Villages of Netherlands at the Present Day